Home > C and C++ in critical systems, Formal verification of C programs > Invariants for C/C++ Classes and Structs

Invariants for C/C++ Classes and Structs

February 5, 2010

In yesterday’s post, I proposed the use of simple C++ classes in critical software. I pointed out that classes are better than C structs, because they offer encapsulation and make it easier to avoid using objects that are not completely initialized. Now I’m going to point out another advantage of classes over structs, which is that they make it easier to enforce invariants.

Consider the following C code:

typedef struct _Limits {
int minValue;
int maxValue;  // must always be >= minValue
} Limits;

The comment is an example of an invariant, i.e. a condition on the values of the members that we always expect to be true. During testing, we might want to do runtime checks to report any violation of the invariant. We would also like to do static analysis to make sure it always holds.

The problem with enforcing this invariant is that minValue and maxValue are public. This means that any piece if code that uses a variable of type Limits can break the invariant by assigning a new valie to minValue or maxValue. If we want to check the invariant at runtime, we must add a runtime check everywhere that the code assigns a value to either of these fields. Likewise, a static analyser must consider whether the invariant is broken at every place where one of these fields is assigned.

Let’s look at how we would define the Limits type using a C++ class instead:

class Limits {
int _minValue;
int _maxValue; // must always be >= minValue
public:
int minValue() const { return _minValue; }
int maxValue() const { return _maxValue; }
Limits(int n, int x)
: _minValue(n), _maxValue(x) {}
}

I’ve made the data private, and I’ve added a couple of functions to allow the min and max values to be read, but not written (don’t worry about whether this is efficient – any reasonable C++ compiler will inline calls to these functions). I’ve also added a constructor so that we can create values of type Limits. Using this new declaration of Limits, the only way that anyone can break the invariant is by calling the constructor with n > x. So there is just one place where we need to insert a runtime check to catch every instance where this invariant might be broken.

Finally, let’s look at what you need to do to get ArC to verify statically that the invariant always holds:

#include "arc.h"
class Limits {
int _minValue;
int _maxValue;
invariant(_maxValue >= _minValue)
public:
int minValue() const { return _minValue; }
int maxValue() const { return _maxValue; }
Limits(int n, int x)
: _minValue(n), _maxValue(x) pre(x >= n) {}
}

Instead of expressing the invariant as a comment, we have expressed it using the invariant keyword. We #include “arc.h” at the start so that when you are compiling the file using a normal C++ compiler, invariant(…) is defined as a macro that expands to nothing. This makes the invariant invisible to the compiler. But when ArC sees the invariant, it know that it needs to prove that the invariant holds anywhere that we create or modify a value of type Limits.

Since the invariant only depends on private data, ArC only has to worry about breaking the invariant within the class’s own constructors and members. In order to prove that the Limits constructor satisfies the invariant, we need to ensure x >= n whenever it is called. That’s why I added the pre(x >= n) clause in the constructor. This clause tells ArC to assume x >= n when it verifies the constructor, and to verify x >= n whenever we call the constructor. pre is another ArC keyword – it stands for precondition.

Incidentally, although Microsoft’s Vcc doesn’t support any C++ (unlike ArC), it does allow you to declare invariants on structures. But when you want to initialize or modify such a structure, you’ll generally need to add some more annotations to “unwrap” and “wrap” it. That’s the price of not having encapsulation.

  1. jack
    May 19, 2012 at 04:33

    Thanks for such a good explanation. u should have pasted arc.h file in this same page.

  2. Corne van Tonder
    May 15, 2014 at 18:05

    I know it’s probably a little late for this, but with C, couldn’t you just use ADT’s? Surely that would have the same benefits as those stated for C++ classes? Or am I missing the point?

    • May 21, 2014 at 11:48

      I agree with you that Abstract Data Types used in C can provide a certain amount of encapsulation. However, they have the major disadvantage that their clients can only refer to them using pointers. This is not too much of a problem in an environment that allows dynamic memory allocation, but is a serious limitation in critical embedded software. For example, a client cannot declare an instance of an ADT (only a pointer to an instance), or an array whose elements have the type of the ADT.

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